Croton tiglium L. 

Family: Euphorbiaceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Jaipal (Bengali), Ba dou (Chinese), Purging Croton (England), Geyapal (Hindi), Hazu (Japanese), Crotonolie (Dutch), Krotonölbaum (German).

Local Availability

Chittagong and Sal forests of Bangladesh.

Worldwide Availability

Usually planted, in and about towns, throughout the Philippines. Naturalized in some places. Of prehistoric introduction from Malaya. Also occurs in India to New Guinea.

Botanical Description 21

Jaipal is very small tree, an erect or less or more spreading shrub. Leaves are ovate 7 to 12 centimeters in length, alternate, pointed at the tip and toothed at the margins, usually somewhat rounded

Common Ethnobotanical Use 22

Roots, bark, leaves, and seeds possess drastic purgative properties. Croton oil is considered rubefacient and counteirritant.  Croton oil's property as external vesicant and internal purgative is attributed to the presence of croton oleic acid. Differentiation between croton poisoning from ptomaine poisoning: For rheumatic pains of the legs and waist: use 3 to 6 gms of dried material in the form of decoction. Pounded fresh leaves may be applied as poultice for snakebites or may be used as insecticide. Croton seed oil has been used as purgative. Seed oil used for treatment of schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasites. Roots, bark, seeds, and leaves considered a drastic purgative. Bruised root applied to carbuncles and cancerous sores.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Hexadecanoic acidStem6
Ethyl linoleateSeed6
Ethyl hexadecanoateSeed; Stem6
Oleic acidStem; Seed6, 16
Ethyl decanoateSeed6
Ethyl oleateStem6
Ethyl dodecanoateSeed6
Ethyl myristateSeed6
Ethyl octadecanoateSeed; Stem6
12-O-Acetyl-5,6-didehydro-7-oxophorbol-13-yl 2-methylbutanoateLeaf1
13-O-Acetylphorbol-20-linoleateSeed2, 3
12-O-Acetylphorbol-13-decanoateSeed2, 4, 12
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetateSeed2, 5, 12
Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalateStem6
15-Methyl-11-hexadecenoic acid,methyl esterStem6
Heptadecanoic acid,ethyl esterSeed6
12-O-Tiglylphorbol-13-isobutyrateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 12, 15
13-O-Acetylphorbol-4-deoxy-4beta-phorbol-20-oleateSeed3, 9
CrotocaudinStem Bark11
Phorbol acetate butyrateSeed4
12-O-Acetyl-5,6-didehydro-7-oxophorbol-13-yl 2-methylpropanoateLeaf1
12-O-Acetyl-5,6-didehydro-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxyphorbol-13-yl 2-methylbutanoateLeaf1
12-O-(2-Methyl)butyrylphorbol-13-isobutyrateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 15
12-O-(2-Methyl)butyrylphorbol-13-acetateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 15
12-O-Tiglyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-acetateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 15
12-O-Tiglylphorbol-13-acetateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 12, 15
4-Deoxy-20-oxophorbol 12-tiglyl-13-acetateLeaf14
Crotignoid ATwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid BTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid CTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid DTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid ETwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid FTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid GTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid HTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid ITwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid JTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid KTwig; Leaf15
12-O-Isobutyrylphorbol-13-acetate Twig; Leaf15

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Methanol Lung Cancer 20
Ethanol Antibacterial 18
Ethanol Antifungal 18
Methanol Antiviral 2
Methanol Anticancer 19


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