Croton tiglium L. 

Family: Euphorbiaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Jaipal (Bengali), Ba dou (Chinese), Purging Croton (England), Geyapal (Hindi), Hazu (Japanese), Crotonolie (Dutch), Krotonölbaum (German).

Local Availability

Chittagong and Sal forests of Bangladesh.

Worldwide Availability

Usually planted, in and about towns, throughout the Philippines. Naturalized in some places. Of prehistoric introduction from Malaya. Also occurs in India to New Guinea.

Botanical Description 21

Jaipal is very small tree, an erect or less or more spreading shrub. Leaves are ovate 7 to 12 centimeters in length, alternate, pointed at the tip and toothed at the margins, usually somewhat rounded

Common Ethnobotanical Use 22

Roots, bark, leaves, and seeds possess drastic purgative properties. Croton oil is considered rubefacient and counteirritant.  Croton oil's property as external vesicant and internal purgative is attributed to the presence of croton oleic acid. Differentiation between croton poisoning from ptomaine poisoning: For rheumatic pains of the legs and waist: use 3 to 6 gms of dried material in the form of decoction. Pounded fresh leaves may be applied as poultice for snakebites or may be used as insecticide. Croton seed oil has been used as purgative. Seed oil used for treatment of schistosomiasis and other intestinal parasites. Roots, bark, seeds, and leaves considered a drastic purgative. Bruised root applied to carbuncles and cancerous sores.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
EicosaneStem6
StigmasterolSeed6
Hexadecanoic acidStem6
beta-sitosterolLeaf10
Ethyl linoleateSeed6
Ethyl hexadecanoateSeed; Stem6
Octacosan-1-olLeaf10
Oleic acidStem; Seed6, 16
Ethyl decanoateSeed6
Ethyl oleateStem6
Ethyl dodecanoateSeed6
Ethyl myristateSeed6
Ethyl octadecanoateSeed; Stem6
12-O-Acetyl-5,6-didehydro-7-oxophorbol-13-yl 2-methylbutanoateLeaf1
13-O-Acetylphorbol-20-linoleateSeed2, 3
13-O-Tigloylphorbol-20-linoleateSeed2
12-O-Acetylphorbol-13-tigliateSeed2
12-O-Decanoylphorbol-13-(2-methylbutyrate)Seed2
12-O-Tigloylphorbol-13-(2-methylbutyrate)Seed2
12-O-Acetylphorbol-13-decanoateSeed2, 4, 12
12-O-(2-Methylbutyroyl)phorbol-13-dodecanoateSeed2
12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetateSeed2, 5, 12
Bis (2-ethylhexyl) phthalateStem6
15-Methyl-11-hexadecenoic acid,methyl esterStem6
Heptadecanoic acid,ethyl esterSeed6
Dodecamethyl-cyclohexasiloxaneStem6
Tetradecamethyl-cycloheptasiloxaneStem6
IsoguanosineSeed7
12-O-Tiglylphorbol-13-isobutyrateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 12, 15
12-O-Acetylphorbol-13-acetateSeed8
Phorbol-13-acetateSeed8
13-O-Acetylphorbol-4-deoxy-4beta-phorbol-20-oleateSeed3, 9
12-O-(2-Methyl)butyrylphorbol-13-tiglateSeed9
12-O-Tiglylphorbol-13-propionateSeed9
12-O-Hexadecanoylphorbol-13-acetateSeed9
CrotonineLeaf10
24-Ethyl-5,22-cholest-dien-3-olLeaf10
12-O-Tigloylphorbol-13-(2-methylpropionate)Leaf10
CrotocaudinStem Bark11
Phorbol acetate butyrateSeed4
12-O-Decanoylphorbol-13-acetateSeed12
12-O-Dodecanoylphorbol-13-acetateSeed12
PhorbolSeed13
12-O-Acetyl-5,6-didehydro-7-oxophorbol-13-yl 2-methylpropanoateLeaf1
12-O-Acetyl-5,6-didehydro-6,7-dihydro-7-hydroxyphorbol-13-yl 2-methylbutanoateLeaf1
12-O-(2-Methyl)butyrylphorbol-13-isobutyrateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 15
12-O-(2-Methyl)butyrylphorbol-13-acetateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 15
12-O-Tiglyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-isobutyrateSeed8
12-O-Tiglyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-acetateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 15
12-O-(2-Methyl)butyryl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-acetateSeed8
Phorbol-12-tiglateSeed8
4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-acetateSeed8
12-O-Tiglylphorbol-13-acetateSeed; Twig; Leaf8, 12, 15
4-Deoxy-20-oxophorbol 12-tiglyl-13-acetateLeaf14
7-oxo-5-ene-phorbol-13-(2-methylbutyrate)Leaf14
7-Hydroxyl-phorbol-5-ene-13-(2-methyl)butyrateLeaf14
7-Hydroxyl-phorbol-5-ene-13-isobutyrateLeaf14
13-O-(2-metyl)butyryl-phorbolLeaf14
12-O-Tiglylphorbol-4-deoxy-4beta-phorbol-13-acetateSeed3
12-O-Tiglylphorbol-4-deoxy-4beta-phorbol-13-hexadecanoateSeed3
Crotignoid ATwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid BTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid CTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid DTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid ETwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid FTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid GTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid HTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid ITwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid JTwig; Leaf15
Crotignoid KTwig; Leaf15
12-O-Isobutyrylphorbol-13-acetate Twig; Leaf15
13-O-Acetyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-20-linoleateSeed9
13-O-Acetyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-20-oleateSeed9
12-O-Tiglyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-decanoateSeed9
12-O-Tiglyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-phenylacetateSeed9
12-O-Tiglyl-4-deoxy-4alpha-phorbol-13-(2-methyl)butyrateSeed9

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Seed
Methanol Lung Cancer 20
Ethanol Antibacterial 18
Ethanol Antifungal 18
Methanol Antiviral 2
Methanol Anticancer 19

References

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  • 2 El-Mekkawy, S., Meselhy, M.R., Nakamura, N., Hattori, M., Kawahata, T. and Otake, T. (2000) Anti-HIV-1 phorbol esters from the seeds of Croton tiglium. Phytochemistry, 53, 457-464.
  • 3 Zhang, X.-L., Khan, A.-A., Wang, L., Yu, K., Li, F. and Wang, M.-K. (2016) Four new phorbol diesters from Croton tiglium and their cytotoxic activities. Phytochemistry Letters, 16, 82-86.
  • 4 Liu, Z., Gao, W., Zhang, J. and Hu, J. (2012) Antinociceptive and smooth muscle relaxant activity of Croton tiglium L seed: an In-vitro and In-vivo study. Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research: IJPR, 11, 611.
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