Zanthoxylum rhetsa

Family: Rutaceae

Synonyms

Zanthoxylum budrunga (Roxb.) DC., Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston.

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Bazinali, Kantahorina, Tambol, Badrang; Bazna (Chittagong, Dhaka); Bajrang (Sylhet).

Local Availability

Zanthoxylum rhetsa is found in Sylhet, Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar, Gazipur and Tangail.

Worldwide Availability

Botanical Description 13

Zanthoxylum rhetsa is Deciduous trees, to 20 m high, bark 15-20 mm thick, brown, mottled with white, armed with conical prickles; outer bark dead, corky, pale yellow, inner bark sulphur yellow; branch

Common Ethnobotanical Use 14

The peel of the fruits, the seeds, the bark of the stems and roots as well as the oil (mullillam-oil), extracted from the fruits, are used for medicinal purposes. A decoction of the bark is taken internally as a cure for pains in the chest. The bark is pounded and mixed with oil then used externally as a remedy for stomach pains. When chewed it is applied to snakebites. The fruits are aromatic, astringent, stimulant, and stomachic. They are used in the treatment of dyspepsia, asthma and bronchitis, heart troubles, toothache and rheumatism. The skin of the fruit is credited with astringent, stimulant and digestive properties. An oil obtained by steam distillation is used as a traditional remedy for cholera. It is further applied as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The report does not say which part of the plant yields this essential oil, but it is likely to be the fruit.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
LimoneneSeed5
LinaloolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
NonanalSeed5
alpha-TerpineolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
beta-Caryophyllene Seed Coat; Seed3, 5
LupeolBark4, 8
Hexadecanoic acidBark2, 4
7-Hydroxy-6-methoxychromen-2-oneStem 6
OctanolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
DecanolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
Nonanoic acidSeed5
Linoleic acidBark2
Decyl acetateSeed Coat3
NerolidolSeed Coat3
(2E,6E)-FarnesolBark; Seed4, 5
Ethyl hexadecanoateBark2
delta-CadineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
beta-BisaboleneSeed5
(E,E)-alpha-farneseneSeed5
SabineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
gamma-TerpineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
n-UndecaneSeed5
4-TerpineolSeed Coat3
DecanalSeed Coat3
Linalool acetateSeed5
2-UndecanoneSeed Coat3
beta-CubebeneSeed5
DodecanalSeed Coat3
alpha-HumuleneSeed5
Germacrene DSeed5
SpathulenolSeed5
TetradecanalSeed Coat3
beta-AmyrinBark4
Octadeca-9,12-dienoic acidBark4
ScoparoneBark4
Oleic acidBark2
Lauric acidBark2
Quinic acidBark4
1,1-Diethoxy butaneBark2
1,1-Diethoxy pentaneBark2
1,1,3-Triethoxy propaneBark2
beta-PineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
alpha-PineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
OcimeneSeed Coat3
(+)-SesaminStem Bark1
CampheneSeed5
delta-3-CareneSeed5
MyrceneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
beta-PhellandreneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
p-CymeneSeed Coat3
TerpinoleneSeed Coat3
4-((1E)-3-Hydroxy-1-propenyl)-2-methoxyphenolBark4
Myristic acidBark2
trans-p-Menth-2-en-1-ol Seed Coat3
Sabinene hydrateSeed Coat3
alpha-SelineneSeed5
gamma-CadineneSeed5
ReticulineBark4
alpha-PhellandreneSeed5
trans-Sabinene hydrateSeed Coat3
alpha-ThujeneSeed Coat3
alpha-TerpineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
ChelerythrineBark4
NorchelerythrineRoot Bark8
AllocryptopineBark4
DihydrochelerythrineSeed5
Diisooctyl phthalateBark2
Vinyl syringolBark4
trans-Sinapyl alcoholBark4
Caproic acidSeed5
Nonan-2-oneSeed Coat3
(+)-YangambinBark4
Neryl acetateSeed Coat3
Terpinyl acetateSeed Coat3
9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-,methyl esterBark4
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl octyl esterBark2
(E)-beta-lononeBark2
Germacrene BSeed5
2-TridecanoneSeed Coat3
cis-p-Menth-2-en-1-olSeed Coat3
delta-CadinolSeed5
1-ButanolBark4
Ethyl hexanoateBark2
Phenylacetic acidBark4
2-ButoxyethanolBark4
3,5-Dimethoxy-4-geranyloxycinnamyl alcoholStem Bark1
8-methoxy-N-methylflindersineStem Bark1
Xanthyletin Stem Bark1
Azulene,1,4-dimethyl-7-(1-methylethyl)-Bark2
Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl esterBark2
trans-piperitolSeed Coat3
EudesminBark4
KobusinBark4
Stigmast-5-en-3-olBark4
UsambanolineBark4
DihydronitidineBark4
Epi-eudesminBark4
2,2-DimethoxybutaneBark4
Butyl-4-hydroxybenzoateBark4
4-[(6,7-Dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-isoquinolinyl)methyl]phenolBark4
HesperetinBark4
(-)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-isoquinolin-6-ol-1-carboxylic acidBark4
N-MethyllaurotetanineBark4
1-Hexen-3-olSeed5
gamma-CadinolSeed5
(-)-Asarinin Stem 6
DihydroalatamideStem 6
(-)-tembamideStem 6
DictamnineStem 6
N-nornitidine Stem 6
XanthoxyletinStem 6
Osthol Stem 6
RutaecarpineStem 6
Xanthoxyline(2-hydroxy-4,6 dimethoxy acetophenone)Fruit7
(±)-EvodiamineRoot Bark8
8-Hydroxy-4ʹ-methoxy-pinoresinolBark4
LimoneloneStem6

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Root; Stem Bark
Acetone Antibacterial 11
Seed; Stem Bark
Ethanol; Methanol Antinociceptive 9,10
Stem Bark
Methanol Antidiarrhoeal 10
N/A Anticancer 12

References

  • 1 Ahsan, M., Zaman, T.A., Hasan, C.M., Ito, C. and Islam, S.N. (2000) Constituents and cytotoxicity of Zanthoxylum rhesta stem bark. Fitoterapia, 71, 697-700.
  • 2 THELWELL, R.C. and MAYNARD, I. (2005) GC-MS analysis of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (roxb.) dc spines. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 228-234.
  • 3 Rana, V. and Blazquez, M.A. (2010) Volatile Constituents of the Seed Coat of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 22, 430-432.
  • 4 Santhanam, R.K., Ahmad, S., Abas, F., Safinar Ismail, I., Rukayadi, Y., Tayyab Akhtar, M. and Shaari, K. (2016) Bioactive constituents of Zanthoxylum rhetsa bark and its cytotoxic potential against B16-F10 melanoma cancer and normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell lines. Molecules, 21, 652.
  • 5 Jirovetz, L., Buchbauer, G., Shafi, M. and Saidutty, A. (1998) Analysis of the aroma compounds of the essential oil of seeds of the spice plant Zanthoxylum rhetsa from southern India. Zeitschrift für Lebensmitteluntersuchung und-Forschung A, 206, 228-229.
  • 6 Tangjitjaroenkun, J., Chantarasriwong, O. and Chavasiri, W. (2012) Chemical constituents of the stems of Zanthoxylum limonella Alston. Phytochemistry Letters, 5, 443-445.
  • 7 Charoenying, P., Teerarak, M. and Laosinwattana, C. (2010) An allelopathic substance isolated from Zanthoxylum limonella Alston fruit. Scientia horticulturae, 125, 411-416.
  • 8 Joshi, B.S., Moore, K.M., Pelletier, S.W. and Puar, M.S. (1991) Alkaloids of zanthoxylum budrunga wall.: NMR assignments of dihydrochelerythrine,(±)‐evodiamine and zanthobungeanine. Phytochemical analysis, 2, 20-25.
  • 9 Islam, M., Biswas, N.N., Saha, S., Hossain, H., Jahan, I.A., Khan, T.A., Awang, K. and Shilpi, J.A.J.T.S.W.J. (2014) Antinociceptive and antioxidant activity of Zanthoxylum budrunga wall (rutaceae) seeds. 2014.
  • 10 Rahman, M., Alimuzzaman, M., Ahmad, S. and Chowdhury, A.A.J.F. (2002) Antinociceptive and antidiarrhoeal activity of Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 73, 340-342.
  • 11 Tantapakul, C., Phakhodee, W., Ritthiwigrom, T., Yossathera, K., Deachathai, S. and Laphookhieo, S.J.A.o.p.r. (2012) Antibacterial compounds from Zanthoxylum rhetsa. 35, 1139-1142.
  • 12 Sreelekha, M., Anto, N., Anto, R. and Shafi, P. (2014) Cytotoxicity of 6-acetonyldihydro-chelerythrin, arnottianamide and 6-(2-hydoxypropyl)-dihydrochelerythrine towards human cancer cell lines.
  • 13 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 14 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.