Zanthoxylum rhetsa

Family: Rutaceae


Zanthoxylum budrunga (Roxb.) DC., Zanthoxylum limonella (Dennst.) Alston.

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Bazinali, Kantahorina, Tambol, Badrang; Bazna (Chittagong, Dhaka); Bajrang (Sylhet).

Local Availability

Zanthoxylum rhetsa is found in Sylhet, Chittagong, Chittagong Hill Tracts, Cox’s Bazar, Gazipur and Tangail.

Worldwide Availability

Botanical Description 13

Zanthoxylum rhetsa is Deciduous trees, to 20 m high, bark 15-20 mm thick, brown, mottled with white, armed with conical prickles; outer bark dead, corky, pale yellow, inner bark sulphur yellow; branch

Common Ethnobotanical Use 14

The peel of the fruits, the seeds, the bark of the stems and roots as well as the oil (mullillam-oil), extracted from the fruits, are used for medicinal purposes. A decoction of the bark is taken internally as a cure for pains in the chest. The bark is pounded and mixed with oil then used externally as a remedy for stomach pains. When chewed it is applied to snakebites. The fruits are aromatic, astringent, stimulant, and stomachic. They are used in the treatment of dyspepsia, asthma and bronchitis, heart troubles, toothache and rheumatism. The skin of the fruit is credited with astringent, stimulant and digestive properties. An oil obtained by steam distillation is used as a traditional remedy for cholera. It is further applied as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The report does not say which part of the plant yields this essential oil, but it is likely to be the fruit.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
LinaloolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
alpha-TerpineolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
beta-Caryophyllene Seed Coat; Seed3, 5
LupeolBark4, 8
Hexadecanoic acidBark2, 4
7-Hydroxy-6-methoxychromen-2-oneStem 6
OctanolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
DecanolSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
Nonanoic acidSeed5
Linoleic acidBark2
Decyl acetateSeed Coat3
NerolidolSeed Coat3
(2E,6E)-FarnesolBark; Seed4, 5
Ethyl hexadecanoateBark2
delta-CadineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
SabineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
gamma-TerpineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
4-TerpineolSeed Coat3
DecanalSeed Coat3
Linalool acetateSeed5
2-UndecanoneSeed Coat3
DodecanalSeed Coat3
Germacrene DSeed5
TetradecanalSeed Coat3
Octadeca-9,12-dienoic acidBark4
Oleic acidBark2
Lauric acidBark2
Quinic acidBark4
1,1-Diethoxy butaneBark2
1,1-Diethoxy pentaneBark2
1,1,3-Triethoxy propaneBark2
beta-PineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
alpha-PineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
OcimeneSeed Coat3
(+)-SesaminStem Bark1
MyrceneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
beta-PhellandreneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
p-CymeneSeed Coat3
TerpinoleneSeed Coat3
Myristic acidBark2
trans-p-Menth-2-en-1-ol Seed Coat3
Sabinene hydrateSeed Coat3
trans-Sabinene hydrateSeed Coat3
alpha-ThujeneSeed Coat3
alpha-TerpineneSeed Coat; Seed3, 5
NorchelerythrineRoot Bark8
Diisooctyl phthalateBark2
Vinyl syringolBark4
trans-Sinapyl alcoholBark4
Caproic acidSeed5
Nonan-2-oneSeed Coat3
Neryl acetateSeed Coat3
Terpinyl acetateSeed Coat3
9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-,methyl esterBark4
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl octyl esterBark2
Germacrene BSeed5
2-TridecanoneSeed Coat3
cis-p-Menth-2-en-1-olSeed Coat3
Ethyl hexanoateBark2
Phenylacetic acidBark4
3,5-Dimethoxy-4-geranyloxycinnamyl alcoholStem Bark1
8-methoxy-N-methylflindersineStem Bark1
Xanthyletin Stem Bark1
Octadecanoic acid, 2-hydroxy-1,3-propanediyl esterBark2
trans-piperitolSeed Coat3
(-)-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-isoquinolin-6-ol-1-carboxylic acidBark4
(-)-Asarinin Stem 6
DihydroalatamideStem 6
(-)-tembamideStem 6
DictamnineStem 6
N-nornitidine Stem 6
XanthoxyletinStem 6
Osthol Stem 6
RutaecarpineStem 6
Xanthoxyline(2-hydroxy-4,6 dimethoxy acetophenone)Fruit7
(±)-EvodiamineRoot Bark8

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Root; Stem Bark
Acetone Antibacterial 11
Seed; Stem Bark
Ethanol; Methanol Antinociceptive 9,10
Stem Bark
Methanol Antidiarrhoeal 10
N/A Anticancer 12


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  • 2 THELWELL, R.C. and MAYNARD, I. (2005) GC-MS analysis of ethanolic extract of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (roxb.) dc spines. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 94, 228-234.
  • 3 Rana, V. and Blazquez, M.A. (2010) Volatile Constituents of the Seed Coat of Zanthoxylum rhetsa (Roxb.) DC. Journal of Essential Oil Research, 22, 430-432.
  • 4 Santhanam, R.K., Ahmad, S., Abas, F., Safinar Ismail, I., Rukayadi, Y., Tayyab Akhtar, M. and Shaari, K. (2016) Bioactive constituents of Zanthoxylum rhetsa bark and its cytotoxic potential against B16-F10 melanoma cancer and normal human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cell lines. Molecules, 21, 652.
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