Viola odorata

Family: Violaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Sweet Violet, Violet, Common Violet, or Garden Violet (English), Gulbanafsa (Hindi)

Local Availability

All over the Bangladesh

Worldwide Availability

Viola odorata is indigenous to India and found in Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, and Kumaon hills. From old ages it has been grown in gardens.

Botanical Description 20

Viola odorata is  20-25 cm in height, spread 25-30 cm. Solitary blue, purple, yellow, white, or pink flowers are borne April-May on slender stalks that arise above a tuft of foliage. The half inchi wi

Common Ethnobotanical Use 21

Viola odorata is commonly used as remedy for coughs and sore throat, hoarseness and tonsillitis. The herb is valued as an expectorant, diaphoretic, antipyretic, diuretic and as a laxative, in bilious affections. The scent of violet flowers is distinctive with only a few other flowers having a remotely similar odour. V. odorata is used either alone or in mixture with other herbs for catarrhal and pulmonary troubles and for calculous affections. The pharmacological study revealed the role of Viola odorata in some Unani drugs for treatment of common cold, asthma, coughs and fevers.Recently, many scientist have reported the anticancer, antibacterial, antioxidant, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effect of various extract of Viola odorata.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Quercetin 3-O-glucosideFlower1
Pent-1-en-3-olLeaf5
TolueneLeaf5
HexanalLeaf5
2-FuraldehydeFlower; Leaf2, 5
p-XyleneLeaf5
BenzaldehydeLeaf5
2-PentylfuranLeaf5
LimoneneLeaf5
1,8-CineoleLeaf3
LinaloolFlower; Leaf2, 3, 5
NonanalLeaf5
3,5,5-Trimethylcyclohex-2-enoneLeaf5
3-Methoxy-2-(2-methylpropyl)pyrazineLeaf5
alpha-TerpineolFlower; Leaf2, 5
EugenolLeaf7
HeneicosaneLeaf3
Methyl benzoate Flower2
Acetophenone Flower2
Lupeol4
Stigmasterol4
Hexadecanoic acidLeaf3
beta-sitosterol4
DodecanolLeaf3
SabineneFlower2
6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-oneLeaf5
Benzyl alcoholFlower; Leaf2, 5
gamma-TerpineneFlower; Leaf2, 5
n-UndecaneLeaf5
CamphorLeaf3
4-TerpineolFlower2
Methyl salicylateLeaf3, 5
n-DodecaneLeaf5
GeraniolFlower; Leaf2, 3
n-TridecaneLeaf3
UndecanalLeaf3
alpha-CopaeneFlower2
beta-BourboneneFlower2
beta-CubebeneFlower2
alpha-HumuleneFlower2
Germacrene DFlower2
beta-SelineneFlower2
BicyclogermacreneFlower2
SpathulenolFlower; Leaf2, 3
n-HexadecaneLeaf3
Octadeca-9,12-dienoic acidLeaf9
RutinFlower1
Triacetonamine8
NicotiflorinFlower1
Ethyl pentanoateLeaf5
MauritianinFlower1
beta-PineneLeaf3
alpha-PineneFlower; Leaf2, 3
beta-SesquiphellandreneFlower2
GermacreneFlower2
alpha-CubebeneFlower2
delta-3-CareneFlower2
MyrceneFlower; Leaf2, 5
beta-PhellandreneFlower2
2-HexenalLeaf5, 9
TerpinoleneLeaf5
(Z)-3-Hexenyl acetateLeaf5
(Z)-3-HexenolLeaf3, 9
gamma-ElemeneFlower2
cis-JasmoneLeaf5
cis-beta-OcimeneFlower2
Sabinene hydrateFlower2
delta-ElemeneFlower2
alpha-GurjuneneFlower2
alpha-GuaieneFlower2
allo-AromadendereneFlower2
ViridifloreneFlower2
gamma-CadineneFlower2
LedolFlower2
Germacrene D-4-olFlower2
GlobulolFlower2
alpha-CadinolFlower2
Benzyl benzoateFlower2
1-HexadeceneLeaf3
5,4'-Dihydroxy-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxyflavoneFlower1
alpha-ThujeneFlower2
alpha-TerpineneFlower2
HexanolLeaf7
1-Octen-3-olLeaf5
(Z)-Linalool oxideFlower2
Acetic acidLeaf5
Acetic acid phenylmethyl esterLeaf5
Caproic acidLeaf5
Nonan-2-oneLeaf5
Eicos-1-eneLeaf3
CitronellalLeaf3
HeptanalLeaf5
n-DecaneLeaf5
(E)-3-Hexen-1-olLeaf5
3-OctanoneLeaf5
(E)-beta-lononeFlower6
alpha-IononeFlower6
Germacrene BFlower2
AromadendreneFlower2
MenthoneLeaf5
1,3,8-p-MenthatrieneFlower2
VirdiflorolFlower2
10-epi-gamma-EudesmolFlower2
2-Phenylethyl alcoholLeaf5
epi-alpha-CadinolFlower2
SalicylaldehydeLeaf3
(2E,6Z)-NonadienalLeaf5
(2E,6Z)-NonadienolLeaf5, 6
cis-p-Menth-2-en-1-olFlower2
cis-beta-guaieneFlower2
(Z)-CariophylleneFlower2
Butyl-2-ethylhexylphthalateLeaf3
Ethyl acetateLeaf5
Isoamyl acetateLeaf5
3-methyl-2-butenalLeaf5
2-HexenolLeaf3, 9
cis-rose oxideLeaf5
trans-rose oxideLeaf5
Ethyl octanoateLeaf5
(E,E)-2,4-heptadienalLeaf5
Ethyl hexanoateLeaf5
Hexyl acetateLeaf5
beta-Phenethyl formateLeaf5
(E)-2-nonenalLeaf5
2,6-nonadienalLeaf7
gamma-ValerolactoneLeaf5
PentanalLeaf5
2-EthylfuranLeaf5
(Z)-2-hexenalLeaf3
Ethyl benzoateFlower; Leaf2, 5
PulegoneFlower2
p-Menth-2-en-1-olFlower2
Z-Methyl epi-jasmonateFlower2
Dihydro-beta-iononeFlower6
4-Methyl anisolFlower2
2-hexanoneLeaf5
1-OctadeceneLeaf3
3-Methyl-3-pentanolLeaf5
Quercetin-3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)]-beta-glucopyranosideFlower1
Kaempferol-3-O-glucopyranosideFlower1
Kaempferol-7-O-glucopyranosideFlower1
1-Phenyl butanoneFlower2
1,3,8-O-Menthatriene Flower2
1-TerpineolFlower2
IsoledeneFlower2
beta-DuprezianeneFlower2
EremoligenolFlower2
Pentadeca-5,10-Dien-1-olLeaf9
3-PentadecenalLeaf9
2,5-Heptadien-1-olLeaf9
2,4-DimethyldodecaneLeaf9
5,6,7,7a-Tetrahydro-4,4,7a-trimethyl-2(4H)-benzofuranone Leaf3
(Z)-3-HexenalLeaf6
2,6- Nonadien-1-olLeaf7
n-HexenolLeaf7
n-HeptenolLeaf7
n-OctenolLeaf7
1,10-di-epi-CubenolFlower2
Hexan-2-olLeaf5
4-Methylpentan-2-olLeaf5
(Z)-Hept-4-enalLeaf5
(E)-Hex-2-enyl acetateLeaf5
2-Methoxy-3-(1-methylethyl)pyrazineLeaf5
4-EthylbenzaldehydeLeaf5
Quercetin-3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosideFlower1
Kaempferol-3-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-[alpha-rhamnopyranosyl(1→6)]-beta-glucopyranoside-7-O-alpha-rhamnopyranosideFlower1

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Aerial
Hydroalcohol Breast Cancer 10
Methanol Hepatoprotective 13
Aqueous Diuretic 19
Butanol; Aqueous Laxative 19
Flower
Hydroalcohol; Hot Water Neurological Disorder 11
Aqueous Antiinflammatory 14
N/A Jaundice 18
Flower; Twig
Aqueous Antibacterial 16,17
Leaf
Methanol Dyslipidemia 12
Methanol Antihypertensive 12
Hexane; Chloroform; Water Antipyretic 15

References

  • 1 Karioti, A., Furlan, C., Vincieri, F.F. and Bilia, A.R. (2011) Analysis of the constituents and quality control of Viola odorata aqueous preparations by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS. Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, 399, 1715-1723.
  • 2 Hammami, I., Kamoun, N. and Rebai, A. (2011) Biocontrol of Botrytis cinerea with essential oil and methanol extract of Viola odorata L. flowers. Arch. Appl. Sci. Res, 3, 44-51.
  • 3 Akhbari, M., Batooli, H. and Kashi, F.J. (2012) Composition of essential oil and biological activity of extracts of Viola odorata L. from central Iran. Natural product research, 26, 802-809.
  • 4 Mittal, S. (2013) Thin layer chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography profiling of plant extracts of Viola odorata Linn. Int J Pharma Bio Sci, 4, B542-549.
  • 5 Saint‐Lary, L., Roy, C., Paris, J.P., Tournayre, P., Berdagué, J.L., Thomas, O.P. and Fernandez, X. (2014) Volatile compounds of Viola odorata absolutes: identification of odorant active markers to distinguish plants originating from France and Egypt. Chemistry & biodiversity, 11, 843-860.
  • 6 Brunke, E.-J., Rittler, F. and Schmaus, G. (1996) New data on trace components with sensory relevance in flower scents. DRAGOCO REPORT-ENGLISH EDITION-, 4-21.
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  • 8 Rodrigues, V., Cardoso, C., Paixao, J. and Costa, M. (2007) 2, 2, 6, 6-Tetramethyl-4-oxopiperidinium nitrate. Acta Crystallographica Section C: Crystal Structure Communications, 63, o243-o245.
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  • 10 Alipanah, H., Bigdeli, M.R. and Esmaeili, M.A.J.I.j.o.p.r.I. (2018) Inhibitory Effect of Viola odorata Extract on Tumor Growth and Metastasis in 4T1 Breast Cancer Model. 17, 276.
  • 11 Ansari, M., Rafiee, K., Yasa, N., Vardasbi, S., Naimi, S. and Nowrouzi, A.J.D.J.o.P.S. (2010) Measurement of melatonin in alcoholic and hot water extracts of Tanacetum parthenium, Tripleurospermum disciforme and Viola odorata. 18, 173.
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  • 13 Qadir, M.I., Ali, M., Saleem, M. and Hanif, M.J.B.J.o.P. (2014) Hepatoprotective activity of aqueous methanolic extract of Viola odorata against paracetamol-induced liver injury in mice. 9, 198-202.
  • 14 Koochek, M., Pipelzadeh, M., Mardani, H.J.J.o.h., spices and plants, m. (2003) The effectiveness of Viola odorata in the prevention and treatment of formalin-induced lung damage in the rat. 10, 95-103.
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  • 19 Vishal, A., Parveen, K., Pooja, S., Kannappan, N. and Kumar, S.J.P.o. (2009) Diuretic, laxative and toxicity Studies of Viola odorata aerial parts. 1, 739-748.
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