Tamarindus indica

Family: Caesalpiniaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Tetul(Bengali), Ambli(Bengali), Khen-thiri (Garo); Hao Mong, Gayoi Si (Marma); Teroi Gaith (Tanchangya), Tamarind(English)

Local Availability

Throughout Bangladesh

Worldwide Availability

Botanical Description 35

A large handsome, evergreen tree, 12-18 m high with round bushy crown and comparatively smaller bole. Leaves peripinnate, 5-12.5 cm long; leaflets small, 10-20 pairs, linear oblong, slightly nothched

Common Ethnobotanical Use 36

Pulp of the ripe fruit is refrigerant, carminative, digestive, astringent, laxative and tonic to the heart; it is a household remedy for fever, dyspepsia, gastritis, dysentery and diarrhoea; also useful in diseases supposed to cause by deranged bile, such as burning of the body and costiveness. Washing of hairs with pulp-soaked water removes dandruff. Drink of pulp lowers blood cholesterol. Gargle with tamarind water is useful in sore throat. Seeds are astringent; used for diarrhoea. The poultice of the pounded leaves is applied to reduce inflammatory swellings, sprains, tumours and ringworms. The leaves crushed with water and expressed to yield an acrid fluid, which is said to be useful in bilious fever and scalding of the urine. Tender leaves and flowers are cooling and antibilious. A poultice of the flower is used in inflammatory affections of the conjunctiva; their juice is given internally for bleeding piles. Stem bark is astringent and tonic; used in asthma, amenorrhoea, fever, diarrhoea and topically for loss of sensation in paralysis

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
ButanedioneFruit9
3-MethylbutanalFruit9
Pent-1-en-3-olFruit9
PyrroleFruit9, 12
TolueneFruit9
HexanalLeaf; Fruit; pulp2, 9, 10
2-Methyltetrahydrofuran-3-oneFruit12
MethylpyrazinePulp10
2-FuraldehydeFruit; Pulp9, 10, 12
p-XyleneFruit9
o-XyleneFruit9
2-AcetylfuranFruit9, 12, 10
2,5-DimethylpyrazinePulp10
2,6-DimethylpyrazinePulp10
EthylpyrazinePulp10
BenzaldehydeFruit; Pulp9, 10
5-Methyl-2-furaldehydeFruit; Pulp9, 12, 10
Methyl furan-2-carboxylateFruit12
LimoneneLeaf2
1,8-CineoleFruit9
LinaloolLeaf; Pulp2, 10
NonanalFruit9, 12
PhenylpropanonePulp10
alpha-TerpineolLeaf; Fruit; pulp2, 9, 10, 12
NeralPulp10
Indole Fruit9
1-MethylnaphthalenePulp10
EugenolFruit9
Methyl hexadecanoateLeaf; Fruit9, 1
Dibutyl phthalatePulp10
2-MethylfuranFruit12
N-MethylpyrroleFruit9, 12
N-EthylpyrroleFruit9
2,3-DimethylpyrazineFruit12
Methyl benzoate Fruit9
Acetophenone Fruit; Pulp9, 10
2,3-DihydrobenzofuranFruit9
StigmasterolKernel4, 5
Hexadecanoic acidLeaf; Seed; kernel; Fruit1, 3, 4, 5, 9
beta-sitosterolLeaf; Kernel; Root1, 5, 11, 4
OctanolPulp10
DecanolPulp10
Linoleic acidSeed; Kernel4, 5, 3
GeranylacetoneFruit9
Ethyl linoleateFruit9
Octadecanoic acidSeed; Kernel; Fruit4, 5, 3, 9
SabineneFruit9
6-Methyl-5-hepten-2-oneFruit9
Benzyl alcoholFruit; Pulp9, 10
gamma-TerpineneFruit9
4-TerpineolFruit; Pulp9, 12
NaphthalenePulp10
Methyl salicylateFruit9, 10, 12
GeraniolPulp10
(E)-2-decenalFruit9
PinitolRoot11
CampesterolKernel4, 5
Lignoceric acidSeed; Kernel4, 5, 3
HexacosaneRoot11
n-Hexadecan-1-olLeaf2
n-Octanoic acidFruit; Pulp9, 12
Pentadecan-1-olLeaf2
LuteolinPericarp and Seed6, 7
Linolenic acid8
Oleic acidSeed; Kernel4, 5, 3
(+)-TaxifolinPericarp and Seed6, 7
(+)-CatechinPericarp and Seed6, 7
(-)-EpicatecholPericarp and Seed6, 7
AcetaldehydeFruit9
Lauric acidFruit9
VitexinRoot11
Arachidic AcidSeed; Kernel; Root4, 5, 3, 11
PhytolLeaf1
beta-PineneLeaf; Fruit2, 9
alpha-PineneLeaf; Fruit2, 9
OcimeneLeaf2
NerolLeaf; Pulp2, 10
2-HexenalFruit; Pulp9, 10
p-CymeneLeaf; Fruit1, 2, 9
TerpinoleneFruit9
(Z)-3-HexenolPulp10
Myristic acidFruit8, 9
Benzyl benzoateLeaf2
ApigeninPericarp and Seed; Root6, 7, 11
Diethyl pthalatePulp10
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acidLeaf1
alpha-PhellandreneFruit9
alpha-TerpineneFruit9
HexanolPulp10
PhenolPulp12, 10
Behenic acidSeed; Kernel4, 5, 3
Procyanidin B2Pericarp and Seed6, 7
Decanoic acidFruit9
Palmitoleic acid8
EriodictyolPericarp and Seed6, 7
Malic AcidLeaf1
Gadoleic acid8
2,6-Bis-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl phenolLeaf; Pulp1, 10
(E)-Linalool oxideFruit; Pulp9, 10
4-methylphenolPulp10
1-HeptanolPulp10
2-MethylbutanalFruit9, 12
PhenylacetaldehydeFruit9, 12
BenzothiazolePulp10
3-Methylbutan-1-olFruit; Pulp9, 10
Pentan-1-olPulp10
(E)-AnetholeFruit9
GeranialPulp10
2-UndecenalFruit9
NonanolPulp10
Undecyl alcoholPulp10
alpha-CedreneFruit9
OctanalFruit9, 12
HeptanalFruit9
p-MethylacetophenoneFruit9
SafranalFruit9
(E)-beta-lononePulp10
SafrolePulp10
Dehydro-p-CymeneFruit9
CinnamaldehydePulp10
2-Phenylethyl alcoholFruit; Pulp9, 10
gamma-NonalactonePulp10
Ethyl (E)-cinnamatePulp10
3-CarvomenthenonePulp10
CaryophylleneLeaf1
1-Butanol-2-methylFruit9
(2E,6Z)-NonadienalFruit9
NaringeninPericarp and Seed6, 7
3-Methyl-2-buten-1-olFruit9
Ethyl acetateFruit9
EthanolFruit9
2-HexenolPulp10
2-ethyl-1-hexanolPulp10
(E,E)-2,4-heptadienalFruit9
Methyl decanoateFruit9
EthylbenzeneFruit9
PropylbenzeneFruit9
2-Phenethyl butanoateFruit9
Pent-3-en-2-oneFruit12
2-EthylfuranFruit9
Cyclohexyl acetateFruit9
p-TolualdehydeFruit9
Diphenyl etherLeaf1
VitispiraneFruit9
1,1,6-Trimethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthaleneFruit9
Tartaric acidLeaf1
Procyanidin trimerPericarp and Seed6, 7
Procyanidin tetramerPericarp and Seed6, 7
Procyanidin pentamerPericarp and Seed6, 7
Linalool anthranilateLeaf1, 2
PyrrolidineFruit9
MethionalFruit; Pulp9, 12
1,2,4-TrimethylbenzeneFruit9
cis-Linalool oxideFruit; Pulp9, 10
2-Butoxyethanol acetateFruit9
2-MethylacetophenoneFruit9
Octacosanyl ferulateRoot11
21-Oxobehenic acidRoot11
Isopropyl vinyl etherFruit12
4-Penten-2-oneFruit12
5-Methyl-2(3H)-furanoneFruit12
4H-Pyran-4-oneFruit12
3,5-DimethylphenolFruit12
IsomaltolFruit12
5-Methyl-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxaldehydeFruit12
1-(2-Furyl)propane-1,2-dioneFruit12
4-Methyl-3-penten-2-onePulp10
PyrazinePulp10
2-MethylthiazolePulp10
2-EthylthiazolePulp10
1-Phenyl-1-propanonePulp10
pseudo-IononePulp10
2-MethylnaphthalenePulp10
gamma-IononePulp10
1,7-DimethylnaphthalenePulp10
BiphenylPulp10
1,2-DimethylnaphthalenePulp10
FluorenePulp10
Dimethyl phthalatePulp10
4-Phenyl-2-pyridonePulp10
LongifoleneLeaf1
Methyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzoateLeaf1
6,10,14-trimethylpentadeca-5,9,13-trien-2-oneLeaf1
3-EicosyneLeaf1
Methyl 9,12,15-OctadecatrienoateLeaf1
Methyl-7,10-OctadecadienoateLeaf1
10-Octadecenoic acidLeaf1
n-Nonadecanoic acidLeaf1
CryptopinoneLeaf1
Methyl 15-tricosenoateLeaf1
Procyanidin hexamerPericarp and Seed6, 7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Bark
Petroleum Ether Analgesic 30
Fruit
Aqueous Antiinflammatory 26
Aqueous Antiobesity 28
Aqueous Analgesic 26,29
Ethanol Antihyperlipidemic 32
Aqueous Antipyretic 26
Fruit Bark
Dichloromethane Anticancer 13
Leaf
Ethanol Antimicrobial 18
Aqueous Antimicrobial 19
Hydroethanol Antiinflammatory 27
Ethanol Analgesic 31
Ethanol Antiulcerant 34
Leaf; Bark
Ethanol; Aqueous Anthelmintic 23
Leaf; Stem; Fruit
Ethanol Antifungal 16
Seed
Acetone; Methanol Antibacterial 20
N/A Antiarthritic 24
N/A Antiinflammatory 24
Methanol Antiinflammatory 25
Methanol Analgesic 25
Methanol Antiulcerant 33
Seed Coat
Hydroethanol Antidiabetic 21
Seed Kernel
Petroleum Ether Anticancer 14,15
Stem Bark
N/A Antidiabetic 22
Stem Bark; Leaf
Aqueous; Acetone; Ethanol Antimicrobial 17

References

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