Ricinus communis

Family: Euphorbiaceae


Family Synonyms

Common Names

Bherenda (Bengali), Kharwa (Arabic), Bi ma (Chinese), Christuspalme (German), Castor oil plant (English).

Local Availability

In most of the places of Bangladesh in stream banks and fallow lands.

Worldwide Availability

The plant is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India, but is widespread throughout tropical regions

Botanical Description 44

Bherenda is a branched, smooth,erect,coarse, somewhat woody bush, 1 to 4 meters high. Younger parts are glaucous, and the vegetative parts and inflorescence are green or purplish.Fruits are green or p

Common Ethnobotanical Use 45

Seed oil is a strong purgative; used externally as a massage for joint pain,rheumatic pains, paralysis and internally for the treatment of constipation. Seeds paste is used as counter irritant. Root bark and leaf also have purgative properties; decoction is used for inflammations, rheumatism and nervous disorders. The leaves are used as galactagogue, and in headache. Juice of tender leaves are given with sugar or sugar candy in dysentery.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Quercetin 3-O-glucosideLeaf7, 4, 5
1,8-CineoleLeaf; Aerial15, 4, 5, 29
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf15, 5
LupeolRoot; Stem; Seed; Aerial1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 30
StigmasterolLeaf10, 4, 5
Hexadecanoic acidSeed; Leaf13, 14, 27
Stigmast-4-ene-3,6-dioneAerial4, 30
Stigmast-4-ene-3-oneAerial4, 30
beta-sitosterolLeaf10, 4
HyperosideFlower10, 4
7-Hydroxy-6-methoxychromen-2-oneLeaf4, 27
Linoleic acidSeed13, 4, 26
(E)-octadec-9-enoic acidSeed; Leaf14, 27
Octadecanoic acidSeed13, 14, 4
Methyl linoleateSeed4, 26
CamphorLeaf; Aerial15, 4, 5, 29
Gallic-acidLeaf17, 18, 4, 19, 5
QuercetinLeaf; Root17, 10, 18, 25, 4, 19, 5
Vanillic acid4
Linolenic acid4
Oleic acidSeed13, 14, 4
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid Leaf17, 4, 18, 19
Ellagic acidLeaf17, 4, 5
EpicatechinLeaf17, 4, 5, 33
RutinLeaf; Flower7, 17, 10, 18, 19, 5
Arachidic AcidSeed14
PhytolAerial4, 30
alpha-Tocopherol22, 4
alpha-PineneLeaf; Aerial15, 4, 5, 29
CampheneAerial4, 5, 29
Kaempferol-3-O-beta-glucopyranoside Leaf7, 4, 5
alpha-ThujoneAerial4, 5, 29
Behenic acidSeed; Leaf14, 27
Ricinoleic acidSeed13, 4, 26
5-O-caffeoylquinic acid22
Undecylenic acidSeed14
Erucic acidSeed13
Eicosadienoic acidSeed13
6beta-Hydroxystigmast-4-en-3-oneAerial4, 30
Stigmasterol-beta-D-glucopyranosideLeaf4, 27
6,8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxycoumarinLeaf4, 27
RicinineSeed; Leaf; Flower; Stem; Pericap of Fruit; Root6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 2, 5, 12, 4, 25, 27, 28, 35
N-Demethyl ricinineLeaf7, 16, 4, 5
Kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosideLeaf7, 4, 5
Quercetin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosideLeaf7, 4, 5
Methyl ricinoleateSeed14, 4, 26
Brassidic acidSeed14
Indole-3-acetic acid20
6,7-Dihydroxy 8-methoxy coumarin Flower10
6,8-Dihydroxy 7-methoxy coumarinFlower10
(+)-SandaracopimaradieneSeed21, 4
(-)-KaureneSeed21, 4
(-)-TrachylobaneSeed21, 4
CembreneSeed21, 4
trans-Dehydromatricaria ester22
3-Carboxy-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridoneLeaf4, 35
Ficusic acid Aerial4, 30
CasbeneSeed4, 32
3-O-beta-D-glycosylsitosterolLeaf4, 27
7-oxo-beta-sitosterolStem4, 2
Stigmasterol stearate4
30-Norlupan-3beta-ol-20-oneSeed; Aerial4, 5, 3, 30
Acetylaleuritolic acidAerial4, 30
Aleuritic acid 4
Gondoic acid 4
1-Palmitic acid glycerol esterLeaf4, 27
1-Palmitic acid glycerol-2,3-dimethylketal esterLeaf4, 27
Ethyl brevifolincarboxylate4
Methyl communisoate4
beta-Sitosterol-3-O-D-glucopyranoside Stem2
(3E,7Z,11E)-19-hydroxycasba-3,7,11-trien-5-oneAerial4, 34
ErandoneRoot1, 4
3-O-[beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-(1→3)-aplha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-4aplha,20aplha-di(hydroxymethyl)olean-12-en-28-oic acidSeed24, 4
3,4-Dimethoxy 6,8-dihydroxy coumarinFlower10, 4
(+)-BeyereneSeed21, 4
Methyl 5-(3-cyano-1-methyl-2-oxo-1,2-dihydropyridine-4-il)pentanoateSeed4, 31
1-Methyl-4-(4-metilpentiloksi)pyridine-2 (1H)-onSeed4, 31
Quercetin-3-O-beta-D-rutinoside4, 5
Kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-rutinoside4, 19, 5
(2R,4aR,8aR)-3,4,4a,8a-tetrahydro-4a-hydroxy-2,6,7,8a-tetramethyl-2-(4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl)-2H-chromene-5,8-dioneAerial4, 34
CallyspinolAerial4, 30
6a-Hydroxy-10bmethoxy-7a,8a-epoxy-5-oxocasbane-20,10-olideAerial4, 34
Stigmasterol arachidate4
Stigmasterol oleate4
Lup-20(29)-en-3beta,15alpha-diolAerial4, 30
Lup-20(29)-en-15alpha-ol-3-oneAerial4, 34
n-Heptacosanyl oleate 4
Arachidoyl arabinoside4
n-Butyl ricicommunioate4

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Petroleum Ether; Acetone; Ethanol Antibacterial 36
Methanol Antibacterial 37
Methanol; Ethanol; Aqueous Antifungal 39
Oil Antifungal 40
Ethanol Antidiabetic 42
Ethanol Antidiabetic 41
Root Bark
Aqueous Analgesic 43
Alcoholic; Water Antibacterial 38
Ethanol Anticonvulsant 9


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