Bherenda (Bengali), Kharwa (Arabic), Bi ma (Chinese), Christuspalme (German), Castor oil plant (English).
In most of the places of Bangladesh in stream banks and fallow lands.
The plant is indigenous to the southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India, but is widespread throughout tropical regions
Botanical Description 44
Bherenda is a branched, smooth,erect,coarse, somewhat woody bush, 1 to 4 meters high. Younger parts are glaucous, and the vegetative parts and inflorescence are green or purplish.Fruits are green or p
Common Ethnobotanical Use 45
Seed oil is a strong purgative; used externally as a massage for joint pain,rheumatic pains, paralysis and internally for the treatment of constipation. Seeds paste is used as counter irritant. Root bark and leaf also have purgative properties; decoction is used for inflammations, rheumatism and nervous disorders. The leaves are used as galactagogue, and in headache. Juice of tender leaves are given with sugar or sugar candy in dysentery.
|Plants Parts||Extract Type||Activity||Reference|
- 1 Srivastava, P., Jyotshna, Gupta, N., Maurya, A.K. and Shanker, K. (2014) New anti-inflammatory triterpene from the root of Ricinus communis. Natural product research, 28, 306-311.
- 2 Ohishi, K., Toume, K., Arai, M.A., Sadhu, S.K., Ahmed, F., Mizoguchi, T., Itoh, M. and Ishibashi, M. (2014) Ricinine: a pyridone alkaloid from Ricinus communis that activates the Wnt signaling pathway through casein kinase 1α. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry, 22, 4597-4601.
- 3 Thompson, M.J. and Bowers, W.S. (1968) Lupeol and 30-norlupan-3β-ol-20-one from the coating of the castor bean (Ricinus communi L.). Phytochemistry, 7, 845-847.
- 4 Ribeiro, P.R., de Castro, R.D. and Fernandez, L.G. (2016) Chemical constituents of the oilseed crop Ricinus communis and their pharmacological activities: a review. Industrial Crops and Products, 91, 358-376.
- 5 Jena, J. and Gupta, A.K. (2012) Ricinus communis Linn: a phytopharmacological review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 4, 25-29.
- 6 Sule, M. and Sani, U. (2008) Isolation of ricinine from methanol extracts of three different seed varieties of Ricinus communis Linn (Euphorbiaceae). Nigerian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 7, 114-118.
- 7 Kang, S.S., Cordell, G.A., Soejarto, D.D. and Fong, H.H. (1985) Alkaloids and flavonoids from Ricinus communis. Journal of natural products, 48, 155-156.
- 8 De la Paz, J., Larionova, M., Maceira, M., Borrego, S. and Echevarría, E. (2006) Control of biodeterioration using a fraction isolated from leaves of Ricinus communis Linn. Pharmacologyonline, 3, 462-466.
- 9 Tripathi, A.C., Gupta, R. and Saraf, S.K. (2011) Phytochemical investigation characterisation and anticonvulsant activity of Ricinus communis seeds in mice. Natural product research, 25, 1881-1884.
- 10 Khafagy, S., Mahmoud, Z. and Salam, N.E. (1979) Coumarins and flavonoids of Ricinus communis growing in Egypt. Planta medica, 37, 191-191.
- 11 Datta, S., Sinha, M., Das, D., Ghosh, S. and Dhar, P. (2013) Protective effect of secondary plant metabolites from Ipomoea aquatica Forsk. against carbofuran induced damages.
- 12 Ferraz, A.C., Angelucci, M.E.M., Da Costa, M.L., Batista, I.R., De Oliveira, B.H. and Da Cunha, C. (1999) Pharmacological evaluation of ricinine, a central nervous system stimulant isolated from Ricinus communis. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior, 63, 367-375.
- 13 Yusuf, A., Mamza, P., Ahmed, A. and Agunwa, U. (2015) Extraction and characterization of castor seed oil from wild Ricinus communis Linn. International journal of science, environment and technology, 4, 1392-1404.
- 14 Warra, A. (2015) Physico-Chemical and GC/MS Analysis of wild Castor (Ricinus communis L.) Seed Oil. Appl. Sci. Reports, 9, 123-128.
- 15 Darmanin, S., Wismayer, P.S., Camilleri Podesta, M.T., Micallef, M.J. and Buhagiar, J.A. (2009) An extract from Ricinus communis L. leaves possesses cytotoxic properties and induces apoptosis in SK-MEL-28 human melanoma cells. Natural product research, 23, 561-571.
- 16 Shukla, B., Visen, P., Patnaik, G., Kapoor, N. and Dhawan, B. (1992) Hepatoprotective effect of an active constituent isolated from the leaves of Ricinus communis Linn. Drug Development Research, 26, 183-193.
- 17 Singh, P.P. and Chauhan, S. (2009) Activity guided isolation of antioxidants from the leaves of Ricinus communis L. Food chemistry, 114, 1069-1072.
- 18 Chen, Z., Zhang, J. and Chen, G. (2008) Simultaneous determination of flavones and phenolic acids in the leaves of Ricinus communis Linn. by capillary electrophoresis with amperometric detection. Journal of Chromatography B, 863, 101-106.
- 19 Rana, M., Dhamija, H., Prashar, B. and Sharma, S. (2012) Ricinus communis L.—a review. International Journal of PharmTech Research, 4, 1706-1711.
- 20 Hall, S.M. and Medlow, G. (1974) Identification of IAA in phloem and root pressure saps of Ricinus communis L. by mass spectrometry. Planta, 119, 257-261.
- 21 Robinson, D.R. and West, C.A. (1970) Biosynthesis of cyclic diterpenes in extracts from seedlings of Ricinus communis. I. Identification of diterpene hydrocarbons formed from mevalonate. Biochemistry, 9, 70-79.
- 22 RIZK, A.F.M. (1987) The chemical constituents and economic plants of the Euphorbiaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 94, 293-326.
- 23 Lin, J.-T., Arcinas, A., Harden, L.R. and Fagerquist, C.K. (2006) Identification of (12-ricinoleoylricinoleoyl) diricinoleoylglycerol, an acylglycerol containing four acyl chains, in castor (Ricinus communis L.) oil by LC-ESI-MS. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 54, 3498-3504.
- 24 Acharya, C. and Khan, N.A. (2013) A triterpenoid saponin from the seeds of Ricinus communis and its antimicrobial activity. Chemistry of natural compounds, 49, 54-57.
- 25 Singh, V., Sharma, S., Dhar, K. and Kalia, A. (2013) Activity guided isolation of anti-inflammatory compound/fraction from Root of Ricinus communis Linn. Int. J. PharmTech Res, 5, 1142-1149.
- 26 Oloyede, G.K. (2012) Antioxidant activities of methyl ricinoleate and ricinoleic acid dominated Ricinus communis seeds extract using lipid peroxidation and free radical scavenging methods. Res J Med Plant, 6, 511-520.
- 27 Bigi, M.F., Torkomian, V.L., De Groote, S.T., Hebling, M.J.A., Bueno, O.C., Pagnocca, F.C., Fernandes, J.B., Vieira, P.C. and Da Silva, M.F.G. (2004) Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) and ricinine against the leaf‐cutting ant Atta sexdens rubropilosa (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the symbiotic fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus. Pest management science, 60, 933-938.
- 28 Ramos-López, M., Pérez, S., Rodríguez-Hernández, G., Guevara-Fefer, P. and Zavala-Sanchez, M.A. (2010) Activity of Ricinus communis (Euphorbiaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). African Journal of Biotechnology, 9.
- 29 Kadri, A., Gharsallah, N., Damak, M. and Gdoura, R. (2011) Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant properties of essential oil of Ricinus communis L. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 5, 1466-1470.
- 30 Li, S., Deng, Q., Zhu, L., Lai, C., Wang, H. and Tan, Q. (2014) Terpenoids and sterols from Ricinus communis and their activities against diabetes. Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi= Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi= China journal of Chinese materia medica, 39, 448-452.
- 31 Rumape, O., Warouw, J., Mandey, L.C. and Tulung, M. (2014) Isolating antifidan compounds of kepyar castor seeds (Ricinus communis L.) to the beetle Epilachna varivestis mulsant,(Coleoptera: Coccinelidae). Int. J. ChemTech Res, 6, 3784-3790.
- 32 Sitton, D. and West, C.A. (1975) Casbene: An anti-fungal diterpene produced in cell-free extracts of Ricinus communis seedlings. Phytochemistry, 14, 1921-1925.
- 33 Zahir, A.A., Rahuman, A.A., Bagavan, A., Geetha, K., Kamaraj, C. and Elango, G. (2012) Evaluation of medicinal plant extracts and isolated compound epicatechin from Ricinus communis against Paramphistomum cervi. Parasitology research, 111, 1629-1635.
- 34 Tan, Q.G., Cai, X.H., Du, Z.Z. and Luo, X.D. (2009) Three terpenoids and a tocopherol‐related compound from Ricinus communis. Helvetica Chimica Acta, 92, 2762-2768.
- 35 Wachira, S.W., Omar, S., Jacob, J.W., Wahome, M., Alborn, H.T., Spring, D.R., Masiga, D.K. and Torto, B. (2014) Toxicity of six plant extracts and two pyridone alkaloids from Ricinus communis against the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Parasites & vectors, 7, 312.
- 36 Islam, T., Bakshi, H., Sam, S., Sharma, E., Hameed, B., Rathore, B., Gupta, A., Ahirwar, S. and Sharma, M. (2010) Assessment of antibacterial potential of leaves of Ricinus communis against pathogenic and dermatophytic bacteria. International Journal of Pharma Research and Development, 1, 1-7.
- 37 Jeyaseelan, E.C. and Jashothan, P.J. (2012) In vitro control of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) by Ricinus communis L. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2, 717-721.
- 38 Jombo, G. and Enenebeaku, M. (2008) Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis: findings from a preliminary analysis. Nigerian Journal of Physiological Sciences, 23.
- 39 Naz, R. and Bano, A. (2012) Antimicrobial potential of Ricinus communis leaf extracts in different solvents against pathogenic bacterial and fungal strains. Asian Pacific journal of tropical biomedicine, 2, 944-947.
- 40 Zarai, Z., Chobba, I.B., Mansour, R.B., Békir, A., Gharsallah, N. and Kadri, A. (2012) Essential oil of the leaves of Ricinus communis L.: in vitro cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties. Lipids in health and disease, 11, 102.
- 41 Shokeen, P., Anand, P., Murali, Y.K. and Tandon, V. (2008) Antidiabetic activity of 50% ethanolic extract of Ricinus communis and its purified fractions. Food and chemical toxicology, 46, 3458-3466.
- 42 Mann, S. (2013) Antidiabetic effects of Ricinus communis on the blood biochemical parameters in streptozotocin induced albino rat.
- 43 Rajeshkumar, D., Nagachaitanya, V., Manasa, G., Usharani, A. and Nagaraju, K. (2013) Pharmacological evaluation of analgisic activity of aqueous extract of Ricinus communis root bark. Int. J. Toxicol. Pharmacol. Res, 5, 94-95.
- 44 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
- 45 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.