Andrographis paniculata

Family: Acanthacea


Justicia paniculata Burm.f.

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Kalomegh, Kalamegh (Bengali), Kalpanas (Garo), The Creat (English).

Local Availability

Chittagong and Chittagong Hill Tracts.

Worldwide Availability

It is native to India and Sri Lanka. It is widely cultivated in Southern and Southeastern Asia

Botanical Description 45

Andrographis paniculata is a very bitter branched, annual, erect herb, 30-90 cm high; branches sharply quadrangular. Leaves grow up to 6.25 cm long, lanceolate, acute. Flowers are small, solitary, dis

Common Ethnobotanical Use 46

Andrographis paniculata was used traditionally in cholera, diabetes, swelling, itches, consumption, piles, gonorrhea, bronchitis, dysentery, dyspepsia, fever and in weakness. It is febrifuge, hypoglycemic, stomachic, tonic, alterative, anthelmintic and cholagogue; used in general debility, dysentery and certain forms of dyspepsia and in liver complaints, mainly of children. Also used as the domestic medicine for flatulence and diarrhea of children. It is also applied in spleen complaints, colic, strangulation of intestine, constipation, diarrhea, cholera, phthisis and consumption. Juice obtained from the leaves together with spices, such as cardamoms, cloves, cinnamons, etc., is dried in sun, and made into little globules, which are prescribed for infants to relieve griping, irregular stools and loss of appetite. The plant is beneficial for malaria in Rema-Kalenga. Traditionally the Garo of Madhupur use leaf juice against fever, headache and vertigo.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
Hexadecanoic acidAerial20
beta-sitosterolWhole Plant6, 18, 22
Octadecanoic acidAerial20
Ethyl hexadecanoateAerial20
LuteolinAerial2, 30
Oleic acidAerial20
Phenol,24 bis(1,1-Dimethylethyl)Aerial20
5-Hydroxy-7,8,2'-trimethoxyflavoneAerial1, 2, 3
5-Hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavoneAerial1, 2, 6, 7, 3, 18
Andrographidoid ARoot4
Andrographidoid BRoot4
Andrographidoid CRoot4
Andrographidoid DRoot4
Andrographidoid ERoot4
Curvifloruside FRoot4
1,8-Dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyxanthoneRoot5, 2
4,8-Dihydroxy-2,7-dimethoxyxanthoneRoot5, 2
1,2-Dihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyxanthoneRoot5, 2
3,7,8-Trimethoxy-1-hydroxyxanthone Root5, 2
IsoandrographolideAerial; Leaf8, 3, 10
14-DeoxyandrographolideAerial; Whole Plant8, 9, 11, 12, 22, 25
14-Deoxy-12-methoxyandrographolideAerial8, 9
14-Deoxy-11-hydroxyandrographolideAerial; Whole Plant8, 22
14-Deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolideAerial8, 11, 2, 13, 12, 14, 10, 18, 25, 26
Bisandrographolide AAerial8
Bisandrographolide BAerial8
Bisandrographolide DAerial8
Andrographidine ARoot15, 23
Andrographidine CRoot15
Andrographidine ERoot15
5-Hydroxy-7,8,2',3'-tetramethoxyflavone Root; Whole Plant15, 22
NeoandrographolideLeaf; Whole Plant9, 16, 6, 14, 3, 25, 22
AndrographolideLeaf; Whole Plant9, 12, 14, 10, 18, 25, 22, 26
AndrograpaninLeaf9, 2, 10
14-deoxy-11-oxoandrographolideWhole Plant9, 11
Paniculide AHypocotyl; Stem17
Paniculide BHypocotyl; Stem17
Paniculide CHypocotyl; Stem17
14-Deoxy-11-oxo-andrographolideLeaf9, 2, 11
8(17),13-Ent-labda-diene-15,16,19-triolAerial2, 25, 26
15-Methoxy-3,19-dihydroxy-8(17)11,13-entlabda-trien-16,15-olideAerial2, 25, 26
3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl 14,19-dideoxyandrographolideAerial2, 27
3-Oxo-14-deoxyandrographolideAerial2, 26
AndrographolactoneAerial2, 28
3-Oxo-14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolideAerial2, 25, 26
8,17-Epoxy-14-deoxyandrographolideAerial2, 27
3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-andrographolideAerial2, 27
ApigeninWhole Plant2, 29
7-O-Methyl-dihydrowogoninAerial; Whole Plant2, 3, 30, 22
5,7,8-TrimethoxydihydroflavoneAerial2, 30
3,4-Dicaffeoylquinic acidWhole Plant2, 29
Andrographolide triacetate16
14-deoxy-14,15-didehydroandrographolideWhole Plant6, 3, 18
14-acetylandrographolideAerial6, 31
5-Hydroxy-7,8-dimethoxyflavanoneRoot; Aerial6, 7, 19, 18
5-Hydroxy-7,8,2',5'-tetramethoxyflavoneAerial6, 3, 22, 32
19-O-Acetyl-14-deoxy-11,12-didehydroandrographolideWhole Plant6, 18
Ergosterol peroxideWhole Plant6, 18
Diethyl pthalateAerial20
1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acidAerial20
Isobutyl esterAerial20
Isobutyl pthalateAerial20
Pentadecanoic acidAerial20
Di-n-octyl pthalateAerial20
AndrographosideLeaf; Whole Plant21, 22
Skullcapflavone I 2'-O-glucosideRoot; Aerial; Whole Plant19, 22
5,7,2',3'-TetramethoxyflavanoneWhole Plant22, 14
5-Hydroxy-7,2',3'-trimethoxyflavone Whole Plant22, 14
Andrographic acid23, 14
Andrographidine DRoot15
Andrographidine FRoot15
19-Norandrographolide AAerial24
(13R, 14R)-3,13,14,19-Tetrahydroxy-ent-labda-8(17),11-dien-16,15-olideAerial21
19-Norandrographolide BAerial24
19-Norandrographolide CAerial24
6'-AcetylneoandrographolideAerial8, 2
3-O-beta-D-glucosyl-14-deoxyandrographolideAerial2, 33
14-Deoxy-17-beta-hydroxyandrographolideAerial2, 27
5,4'-Dihydroxy-7-O-beta-D pyranglycuronate butyl ester2
Andrographidine BRoot15

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Ethanol Pancreatic Cancer 35,36
Ethanol Liver Cancer 37
Methanol Leukemia 38
Ethanol Leukemia 40
Whole Plant
Methanol Colorectal Cancer 39
Aqueous Antibacterial 41
Ethanol Antidiabetic 42,43
Methanol Antiinflammatory 44


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