Musa paradisiaca

Family: Musaceae

Synonyms

Family Synonyms

Common Names

Kala (Bangali), Banana (English), Kela(Hindi), Da jiao(Chinese).

Local Availability

Cultivated throughout the country

Worldwide Availability

Cultivated all over the world

Botanical Description 11

The plant is the largest herbaceous flowering plant. The main or upright stem is a pseudostem, growing from a corm, to a height of 6 to 7.6 meters. Each pseudostem produces a single bunch of bananas.

Common Ethnobotanical Use 12

Young leaves used for cool dressing of inflamed and blistered surfaces and as cool application for headaches. Powdered roots used for anemia and cachexia. Mucilage prepared from seeds used for catarrhal and mild inflammatory forms of diarrhea. Juice of tender roots used as mucilage for checking hemorrhages from the genitalia and air passages. In China, juice of roots used as antifebrile and restorative. Juice of the trunk applied to scalp to increase hair growth and prevent hair from falling. In West Africa, used for diarrhea. In Gambia, sap of inflorescence used for earaches. In French Guiana, flowers used as emmenagogue. In the Gold Coast, sap from roots given as enema for diarrhea. In Cambodia, Java and Malaya, juice from trunk used for dysentery and diarrhea. Juice from flowers, mixed with curds, for dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia. Flour made of green bananas used for dyspepsia with flatulence and acidity. Ripe fruit, mixed with half its weight in tamarinds and a little salt, is a valuable food in chronic dysentery and diarrhea, Cooked flower used for diabetes. Flowers also used as cardialgic. Sap of the flower used for earaches. In Bangladesh used for treatment of diarrhea. In Western Ghat in India, leaves are used for bandaging cuts, blisters and ulcers. Ripe bananas combined with tamarind and common salt used for dysentery. In traditional medicine in India, used for diabetes. Used as hemostatic in Brazil and India. In South-Western Nigeria, green fruits used for diabetes. In Southern Uganda, leaves put under the pillow at bedtime to prevent nightmares and hallucinations. Also, infusion of leaves used for bathing in pre-hepatic jaundice.

Chemical Constituents

Compound Name Compound in Plant Parts Reference
alpha-TerpineolLeaf10
beta-Caryophyllene Leaf10
(2E,6E)-Farnesyl acetateLeaf10
beta-BisaboleneLeaf10
SabineneLeaf10
gamma-TerpineneLeaf10
4-TerpineolFruit11
ThymolLeaf10
beta-ElemeneLeaf10
alpha-HumuleneLeaf10
Humulene epoxide IILeaf10
DopamineLeaf18
beta-PineneFruit11
alpha-PineneFruit11
beta-SesquiphellandreneLeaf10
alpha-MuuroleneLeaf; Root8
MyrceneFruit11
p-CymeneLeaf10
TerpinoleneLeaf10
PatchulaneBark9
allo-AromadendereneLeaf10
ElemolLeaf10
Germacrene D-4-olLeaf10
beta-EudesmolLeaf; Root8
Benzyl benzoateLeaf10
AnnoreticuinLeaf; Seed1, 3
IsoannoreticuinLeaf1
SalsolinolLeaf14
CoclaurineLeaf15
ReticulineRoot2, 13
Kaur-16-ene-19-oic acidBark6, 12
MolvizarinStem Bark4
Rolliniastatin-2Stem Bark4, 5
ReticullacinoneStem Bark4
CopaeneLeaf; Root; Bark8, 9
Rolliniastatin16
Squamosine16
BullatacinSeed; Bark3, 6
cis and trans-IsomurisoleninSeed3
SquamocinSeed3
AcetogeninsSeed17
Germacrene DFruit11
LimoneneFruit11
AnnomonicinLeaf5
SolaminLeaf5
SquamoneLeaf5
Annoreticuin-9-oneSeed; Leaf3, 5
cis-trans-BullactacinoneSeed3
SpathulenolLeaf; Root8
1H-cycloprop(e)azuleneBark9
ReticulatacinBark6
NorushinsunineRoot13
LiriodenineBark; Root6, 13
NeoannoninRoot13
BenzylisoquinolineSeed19
AporphineSeed19
alpha-PhellandreneLeaf10
trans-Sabinene hydrateLeaf10
PinocarvoneLeaf10
delta-TerpineolLeaf10
MyrtenolLeaf10
CuminaldehydeLeaf10
beta-CedreneLeaf10
SesquisabineneLeaf10
ar-CurcumeneLeaf10
ZingibereneLeaf10
(Ε)-gamma-BisaboleneLeaf10
ar-TurmeroneLeaf10
(6S,7R)-BisaboloneLeaf10
(Ε)-alpha-AtlantoneLeaf10
Adriamycin20
14-Hydroxy-25-desoxyrollinicinStem Bark7

Pharmacological Evidence

Plants Parts Extract Type Activity Reference
Corm
Ethanol Anthelmintic 8
Flower
Ethanol; Hydroalcohol Antibacterial 5
Ethanol Antidiabetic 5
Fruit
Methanol Antidiabetic 6
Hydromethanol Antiulcerant 7
Fruit Peel
Aqueous Lung Cancer 10
Leaf
Ethanol Antibacterial 8
Ethanol Antiulcerant 6
Peel; Stalk
Methanol Antifungal 10
Plantain Peel
Aqueous Antibacterial 3
Root
Methanol Cytotoxic 2
Methanol Antithrombotic 10

References

  • 1 Ojewole, J. and Adewunmi, C. (2003) Hypoglycemic effect of methanolic extract of Musa paradisiaca (Musaceae) green fruits in normal and diabetic mice. Methods and findings in experimental and clinical pharmacology, 25, 453-456.
  • 2 Agarwal, P., Singh, A., Gaurav, K., Goel, S., Khanna, H. and Goel, R. (2009) Evaluation of wound healing activity of extracts of plantain banana (Musa sapientum var. paradisiaca) in rats.
  • 3 Jawla, S., Kumar, Y. and Khan, M.S.Y. (2012) Antimicrobial and antihyperglycemic activities of Musa paradisiaca flowers. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 2, S914-S918.
  • 4 Naikwade, P., Gaurav, S., Sharayu, D. and Kailas, J. (2014), Proceeding of the national conference on conservation of natural resources & biodiversity for sustainable development.
  • 5 Okorondu, S., Akujobi, C. and Nwachukwu, I. (2012) Antifungal properties of Musa paradisiaca (Plantain) peel and stalk extracts. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, 6, 1527-1534.
  • 6 Venkatesh, V.K., Kumar, K.G., Pradeepa, K., Kumar, S.S. and Vijay, K. (2013) Anthelmintic Activity of Musa paradisiaca (L.) cv. Puttabale. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research, 2013a, 5, 67-69.
  • 7 Mbagwu, H., Jackson, C., Ekpo, M., Okopedi, E., Anah, V. and Ugwu, C. (2011) Gastroprotective effects of ethanolic leaf extract of Musa paradisiaca L.(Musaceae) in rats. J. Chem. Pharm. Res, 3, 322-327.
  • 8 Kemka-Evans, C., Ngumah, M., Nwachukwu, C. and Ugochukwu, N. (2013) Comparative evaluation of phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of Elaeis guineensis tusks, Musa paradisiaca peels and potassium carbonate on bacteria isolate from fermented Pentaclethra macrophylla seeds. Journal of Global Biosciences, 2, 17-19.
  • 9 Chowdhury, K.A.A., Hosen, S.Z., Nazmul, M., Islam, I.H., Adnan, M., Chy, M.N.U., Imtiazul, M., Kabir, R.B.J.A., Uddin, M.R. and Shoibe, M. (2016) Cytotoxic and thrombolytic activity of roots of Musa paradisiaca (Linn). The Pharma Innovation Journal, 5, 97-100.
  • 10 Vijayakumar, S., Vaseeharan, B., Malaikozhundan, B., Gopi, N., Ekambaram, P., Pachaiappan, R., Velusamy, P., Murugan, K., Benelli, G. and Kumar, R.S. (2017) Therapeutic effects of gold nanoparticles synthesized using Musa paradisiaca peel extract against multiple antibiotic resistant Enterococcus faecalis biofilms and human lung cancer cells (A549). Microbial Pathogenesis, 102, 173-183.
  • 11 Yusuf, M., Begum, J., Hoque, M. and Choudhury, J. (2009) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh-Revised and enlarged. Bangladesh Coun. Sci. Ind. Res. Lab. Chittagong, Bangladesh, 794.
  • 12 Ghani, A. (1998) Medicinal plants of Bangladesh: chemical constituents and uses. Asiatic society of Bangladesh.